We developed the surface-based analysis of 3D data for quantifying and visualizing topological bone surface deviations. In this analysis, significant differences in the values at the x-, y-, and z-axis were mapped onto 3D images. This analysis enables the mapping of bone surface regions with significant deviations on 3D images and consequently providing much more detailed information on the morphological phenotypes of the craniofacial bones both in experimental animals and human subjects.
Discuss the limitations of traditional 2D cephalogram.
Describe the development and application of 3D cephalogram.
Explain how to evaluate the morphological phenotypes of the cases.