Clinically effective torque expression for self-ligating orthodontic brackets will be evaluated based on a systematic review of published literature. Experimental limitations of these results will be reviewed, and new data will be presented using a variety of self-ligating brackets and archwire types. Resistance to sliding of archwires within brackets is an important consideration in many types of tooth movement and may prevent desired forces from being expressed. Data from experiments that measure 3-D force propagation produced by continuous archwires in vertically displaced cuspids and lingually displaced incisors will be presented for active and passive self-ligating brackets.
Gain understanding of torque expression for active and passive self-ligating bracket systems using a variety of wire types
Gain understanding of wire resistance to sliding in orthodontic brackets in a variety of tooth movements and how that influences the expression of desired forces
Gain understanding of the active and passive ligation in force propagation to adjacent teeth using continuous archwires when treating vertically displaced and horizontally displaced teeth.