This lecture will describe the problems associated with using the cranial base for orthodontic diagnosis and outcome assessment including the imperative to reduce radiation exposure and encourage the development of an alternative method. Landmarks associated with the eyes valid and reproducible and are proposed as alternatives to the cranial base. Progress made in 3D photogrammetry that allows comprehensive dentofacial evaluation relative to the eyes will be discussed as well as current and future applications of photogrammetry in orthodontic diagnosis, planning, and the evaluation of treatment outcomes.
Describe the shortcomings of using the cranial base as a reference.
Discuss the pros and cons of using the eyes as a reference instead of the cranial base.
Outline how 3D photogrammetry can be used for orthodontic diagnosis.