Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) is one of the most commonly used protein in osteogenesis and bone repair. Unfortunately, the FDA-approved clinical dose of BMP2 has been reported to induce significant adverse effects, including postoperative swelling and ectopic cyst-like adipogenic bone formation that can potentially cause fatalities when applied to the craniofacial region. One of the main reasons why these undesirable complications occurred is due to increased adipogenesis mediated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARɣ). Inhibiting PPARɣ during osteogenesis has been suggested to tip the balance away from adipogenic and drive the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells toward an osteogenic lineage; however in a critical-sized bone defect healing, suppressing the PPARɣ does not promote bone union! The current study showed the importance of controlling BMP2-mediated osteogenesis and adipogenesis using PPARɣ inhibition to combat BMP2’s adverse effects to improve the safety profile and clinical efficacy of BMP2.
Identify the risks and adverse effects associated with BMP2.
Identify the appropriate indications of BMP2 use in dentistry to minimize the risks and adverse effects.
Comprehend the importance of controlling the balance of BMP2-mediated osteogenesis and adipogenesis during bone defect healing.